Machine tools abstract
A pressure force generator for machine tools is disclosed as having
at least two pneumatically-hydraulically operated pressure multipliers
in which the multipliers and their plungers are connected to a single
high-pressure container containing a liquid.
Machine tools claims
What is claimed is:
1. A pressure force generator for machine tools comprising:
at least two, separate and independent, pneumatic-hydraulic pressure
a single, high-pressure container directly connected to each of
said multipliers and containing hydraulic fluid to be pressurized
by said multipliers in order to actuate at least one of said machine
each of said multipliers including two pneumatically-operated pistons
mounted upon a single piston rod at one end thereof, and a plunger
mounted upon said piston rod at the other end thereof and disposed
within said hydraulic container for pressurizing said hydraulic
fluid within said container; and
control means for selectively actuating said multipliers, either
simultaneously, sequentially, or singly,
whereby the pressurization of said hydraulic fluid may be selectively
controlled as desired or required so as to in turn selectively control
the operation of said at least one of said machine tools.
2. Generator according to claim 1 characterized in that the multipliers
are arranged in a horizontal plane.
3. Generator according to claim 1 characterized in that the multipliers
are positioned at an angle to the vertical.
4. Generator according to claim 1 characterized in that the longitudinal
axes of the multipliers intersect one axis.
5. Generator according to claim 1 characterized in that the longitudinal
axes of the multipliers intersect in one point.
Machine tools description
The invention relates to a pressure force generator for machine
tools having at least two pneumatically-hydraulically operated pressure
multipliers, each of which comprises at least two pressure air pistons
the piston rods of which have plungers at their ends.
There are known different methods of converting energy in the form
of pressurized air into mechanical energy. One of these methods
includes pressurized air acting on one or more pressurized air pistons
which are attached to a common piston rod for delivering a mechanical
force along a predetermined path.
It is further known to multiply such a mechanical force by means
of a hydraulic pressure converter in order to achieve the required
pressure force, for example, in machine tools, such as, presses.
The cylinder diameter and the cylinder stroke of a pneumatic pressure
multiplier are dependent on the press work to be done, as may be
seen by the formula A = Ps (where P is the pressure force and s
is the working path). Such a relationship shows that from a pressure
force of approximately 60 Mp upwards, and a stroke of approximately
3 cm as well, the diameter, as well as the construction height of
the air cylinders arranged with respect to one another in a line,
becomes improportionately large and when the capacities are to be
increased, the mentioned construction is no longer practical. Accordingly,
an impractical building of large volume, and with regard to its
stability, an adequately strong and heavy frame construction would
be required. Another construction disadvantage emerges in view of
the construction of guide means for pneumatic pistons having a large
diameter or to compensate for the buckling stresses of the piston
rod. Finally, such a construction is also comparatively expensive,
not to mention its technical disadvantages.
It is an object of the invention to overcome these shortcomings
and to provide a pressure force generator for machine tools which
uses pressurized air which can produce pressure forces of up to
100 Mp, and a multiple thereof, and which is built on a comparatively
small scale and with a comparatively small construction height,
and with which, the working path, as well as the working velocity,
can be controlled in steps whereby the pressure force remains constant.
The object of invention will be achieved in such a way that all
multipliers and their plungers are connected to a single high-pressure
container containing a liquid.
The volume of the high-pressure container for the liquid is determined
by the predetermined path of the generated forces and remains equally
large in each working position of the plungers or the tools whereby
the working path of the tools and the working paths of the plungers
are given by the predetermined ratio of the hydraulic transfer.
It would be possible to overcome the large working paths of the
hydraulic work piston (with the attached tool) with relatively small
plunger strokes when the plunger cylinders are built as pump cylinders
in the known way and the required quantity of liquid is sucked in
from a liquid container and delivered under pressure into the high-pressure
container containing a liquid.
Another advantage arises from the arrangement of two or more pneumatic-hydraulic
pressure force generators which will be subsequently explained:
1. INFLUENCING OF THE WORKING VELOCITY (C CM/SEC)
The pneumatic control should be arranged in such a way that the
pneumatic cylinders could be made effective simultaneously as well
as in sequence one after another. With two cylinders there will
be achieved in the first case as against the second case a double
velocity of the tool, with n-cylinders an n-multiple of velocity.
Accordingly, with a predetermined maximum working velocity this
maximum velocity, can be halved or it can be reduced to an n-part
of the same -- only in an inverse sense - . The more pressure multipliers
that are used, the more finely is graduated the control of the working
velocity. When machining different materials the tool velocity plays
a considerable role as far as the quality of the machining is concerned.
Tests have shown that four to six steps or pump cylinders are sufficient
to meet practically all requirements.
2. INFLUENCING OF THE WORKING PATH (S CM)
When constructing a cutting or a shaping press the maximum working
path of the tool is determined, for example, by the largest expected
height or thickness of the workpiece to be machined. When, however,
thinner metal sheets or flat materials are to be machined -- which
is usually the case -- the tool still has to traverse the entire
stroke which results in a considerable loss of time especially with
a high number of strokes and an unnecessary wear of the piston linings.
Because of the arrangement of two or more pressure multipliers
which are connected with a single, common, high-pressure container
containing the liquid, the tool can be brought into the proximity
of the workpiece by the movement of one or more of the pressure
multipliers into their lower dead positions where they are held
and from where the working path then begins, the working path therefore
being carried out by the remaining pressure multipliers.
The pressure force remains constant when influencing the working
velocity as well as the working path when there exists a constant
pneumatic inlet pressure so that even the ratio of the hydraulic
transfer remains the same .
How the pressure multipliers can be utilized in conjunction with
a high-pressure container containing the liquid will now be described
in connection with the accompanying drawings in which
FIG. 1 is a vertical section of a high-pressure container containing
a liquid with two pneumatic-hydraulic pressure multipliers arranged
in a line,
FIG. 2 shows a plan view of a high-pressure container containing
a liquid having four pressure multipliers which are arranged in
one horizontal plane,
FIG. 3 shows a plan view of a high-pressure container containing
a liquid having six pressure multipliers which are arranged in a
horizontal plane in such a way that three pressure multipliers lie
on each side of the high-pressure container,
FIG. 4 shows a front view of a pressure force generator the pressure
multipliers of which are arranged at an angle to the vertical plane
of the generator,
FIG. 5 shows a pressure force generator having six pressure multipliers
which are connected with a single high-pressure container containing
a liquid the longitudinal axes of which intersect at one point,
FIGS. 6 and 7 show a side view and a plan view respectively of
a pressure force generator having four pressure multipliers the
longitudinal axes of which are parallel. As can be seen from FIG.
1 two pressure multipliers 1 are arranged in such a way that their
longitudinal axes lie on a straight line 3 which line intersects
a high-pressure container 4 for liquid. In each of the partial chambers
5 and 6 of the multiplier there is accommodated one piston 7 or
8 which pistons are attached to a common piston rod 9 having plungers
10 on their free ends. By moving the plungers 10 towards each other
a pressure is produced in the high-pressure container 4 which pressure
serves for moving two working pistons 11 and 12 of different diameters.
It is comprehensible that control means can be provided by means
of which the pressure in the high-pressure container 4 is controlled
to act on only one of the pistons. If there are provided three pressure
multipliers 1 connected with a single high-pressure container 4
and having their longitudinal axes in a horizontal plane, the longitudinal
axis 13 of at least one multiplier 1 traverses the straight line
3. As can be seen from FIG. 2 there can be provided four pressure
multipliers 1 connected to a single high-pressure container 4. In
case more than four pressure multipliers 1 are required, it is recommended
-- as far as the embodiments according to FIGS. 1 and 2 are concerned
-- to arrange the same in a star-type configuration in one plane,
whereby the angles between the neighboring longitudinal axes should
be the same.
FIG. 3 shows another embodiment. On each side of a high-pressure
container 4' there is arranged three pressure multipliers 1 the
longitudinal axes of which lie in a horizontal plane, whereby the
longitudinal axes of two opposite pressure multipliers lie on one
straight line 3 so that three straight lines 3 are disposed parallel
to one another in this case. It is comprehensible that one or two
additional pressure multipliers 1 could be connected with the high-pressure
container 4' in such a way that, for example, their longitudinal
axes would lie on the straight line 13.
In an embodiment according to FIG. 4 there are arranged the pressure
multipliers 1 at an angle to the vertical line 14. This embodiment
comprises only two pressure multipliers 1 however there can be
provided more than two pressure multipliers to be connected with
a single high-pressure container 4 as can be seen from FIG. 5. A
piston positioned in a working cylinder 15 and impacted by the pressure
from the high-pressure container 4 is connected with a piston rod
16 which rod carries a tool, in this case a precision cut punch
17 under which a matrice 18 is disposed supported by a girder 19.
A frame 20 absorbing the pulling forces connects the high-pressure
container 4 with the girder 19. A control device is disclosed at
21 a pressure sensing means at 22 and a control panel at 23.
It is evident from FIG. 5 that the longitudinal axes of all multipliers
1 of this embodiment intersect at one point 24 which is disposed
on the vertical line 14.
The embodiments according to FIGS. 6 and 7 show that the pressure
multipliers 1 can also be arranged in such a way that their longitudinal
axes run parallel to one another and intersect a horizontal straight
The features of one embodiment can be combined with those of another
embodiment. It is to be mentioned that the high-pressure container
containing the liquid can be connected with a working cylinder for
a large force and a short working path and/or with a working cylinder
for a large working path and a small force as it can be seen from