Method and apparatus for controlling concentration of water treatment chemicals
A water-soluble lithium salt is added as a tracer substance along with a water treatment chemical to water to be treated. The concentration of lithium ions is electrochemically or optically measured using a lithium ion sensitive substance, so as to perform concentration control of the water treatment chemical added to water to be treated. An ion selective electrode, ion selective field effect transistor, or ion optode may be employed to perform the electrochemical or optical measurement using a lithium ion sensitive substance.
Modular waste water treatment system
The modular waste water treatment system receives waste water from a waste water source containing organic waste and produces a treated water effluent. The modular system includes bioreactors and a bioreactor support module. The bioreactors receive a waste water mixture from the bioreactor support module and produce treated water substantially free of organic waste. The bioreactor support module is a transportable unit fabricated upon a frame adapted for transport by a truck upon a public roadway. The bioreactor support module includes items of equipment needed for conditioning waste water for intake by the bioreactors, items of equipment for receiving, processing and discharging treated water from the bioreactors and may include other items of equipment for receiving and processing other byproducts from the bioreactors. The transportable bioreactor support module is sized to support the operation of between one and preferably as many as six bioractors. Accordingly, the modular waste water treatment system can be fabricated off site in a controlled shop environment, transported to a site, placed at a site and even later expanded to include additional bioreactors for increased capacity with a minimum of cost, time and effort.
Method for manufacturing ceramic balls for water treatment
A method for manufacturing ceramic bails for water treatment capable of exerting microbicidal activity in water and solution is provided. The method includes producing a first composition by dissolving borax (Na.sub.2B.sub.4O.sub.7.10H.sub.2O) and copper sulfate (CuSO.sub.4.5H.sub.2O) in an equivalent ratio of 1:1 to water, and drying the solution to produce a first composition, producing a second composition by adding silica to a first mixture of nitric acid and silver mixed in an equivalent ratio of 1:1 while heating the first mixture, adding more than 3 weight percents of the first composition to 200 weight percents of distilled water based on 100 weight percents of a ceramic ball while heating the distilled water, adding more than 8 weight percents of the second composition to a second mixture of the first composition and the distilled water when a total weight of the second mixture is reduced by a half, and drying the second mixture; and dehydrating the second mixture at a temperature of 400.degree. C. to 500.degree. C.